Old PSC Questions of Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs Service/Open

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In this blog post we will be presenting you the questions of second paper for Under-Secretary under the category of Foreign Affairs Service of Nepal as conducted by the Public Service Commission of Nepal in the year 2076. This question belongs to the open category.

लोक सेवा आयोग

नेपाल प्रराष्ट्र सेवा, राजपत्राङ्कित द्वितिय श्रेणी, उप-सचिव वा सो सरह (अप्राविधिक) पदको खुला प्रतियोगितात्मक लिखित परीक्षा


लोकसेवा आयोगबाट सञ्चालित
  1. The United  Nations, which was established after the 2nd  World War in 1945, has been the foremost global forum to address transnational challenges.. Since its inception, the global body has been working in favor of safeguarding peace, human rights, international justice and also promoting economic and social progress at the world level.. As you also know that, of late, the UN encourages its member nations for Sustainable Development Goals, which, besides overall social progress and curbing the poverty and addressing the issue of deadly diseases, disaster and climate change; also takes keen interest and motivates for peace and security globally. In this regard, the role of the United Nations in Nepal’s peace process deserves mention, indeed. 

In the midst of its applauding endeavors for more than seventy four years, however, the global body faces the systemic or institutional challenges, too. The disappointment expressed by Secretary General Antonio Guterres on UN’s “Financial Crisis” must be taken seriously by member states. According to UN News, the secretary General emphasized not only for ensuring “all member states paying in full and on time, but also in putting certain tools in place”. He actually meant to say that member state to put aside their political differences while they work on global issues pertaining to peace and security. 

In the light of above scenario, you are asked to analyze the reason and characteristics of financial Crisis and make some suggestions as to how the global body could extricate itself from such existing challenges?

2. In most of the countries, diplomatic code of conduct is strictly followed with a view to regulating activities of citizens including politicians, diplomats, bureaucrats and other sections of people vis-a vis foreign diplomats and diplomatic missions at home. The observation and implementation of the code of conduct is taken as routing exercise. However, in case of Nepal, the execution of the code of conduct has proved to be a hard nut to crack. The practice to disobey and violate the code is open and flagrant as if it is the democratic exercise to do so. The Government has prepared a detailed code of conduct with suitable enforcement mechanisms. It seems the code is observed more in its breach than practice. Politicians are the worst culprits even though violation of the code is not limited to them but involves most of the senior people. 

Against this scenario, how do you suggest measures to reformulate and execute code of diplomatic conduct efficiously? Also recommend measures to make the code more practical and enforceable.

3. Government of Nepal has opened 109 countries for foreign employment. The utilization of remittances for the improvement of the living standard in documented by several studies. The family members of all the persons who work in other countries take it as an opportunity to spend money. Remittance related to capital accumulation, spending pattern, contribution to the economy and the possibility of economic failure due to growing dependency on it. Remittance as a mechanism for achieving the multiplier effect in the economy in terms of the statistics on GDP Poverty level, unemployment, industrial growth net migration, labor force, internal loans external debt, investment rate and saving patterns.

Against this background, examine the fundamental elements of such arguments and suggest the best way to ensure better performance of Nepal’s foreign employment and remittance policy that  seeks to fulfill then national economic interest.

4. Nepal is simultaneously facing the challenges and opportunities offered with the implied conditionality of Indo-pacific strategy coupled with the Millennium Challenge Corporation aid offer from the US on one hand and the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) from China on the hand. How can we realistically balance our relations with its immediate neighbors India and China and the distant but influential neighbor (USA) and take the maximum benefits for the country? Give your suggestions.

 5. In last may, the US embassy announced that its ambassador shall perform the program called “Chit. Chat with the Ambassador (Rajdut Shanga Guff-Gaff)”, on weekly basis. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, however, objected it saying “Embassy had not taken prior consent with the ministry for the said programe.” Not with standing the MOFA’s objection, the US embassy in Kathmandu asserted by dint of a press release saying” A core function of diplomacy is to engage with people, understand them and their priorities, and build connections with them. We have been doing this in Nepal for 72 years; it is what diplomats do, it is who we are.” 

On this diplomatic-brawl, Kathmandu’s public opinion was divided. The public Diplomacy, which has been practiced in democracies since 1856, is also practiced by Nepali leaders and ambassadors abroad. Yet, on many occasions, Nepali leaders and ambassadors stationed in western societies hold public meetings with Nepali émigré without prior permission from the respective governments ! 

Against this backdrop, in your personal secutiny, whereas Article 41.1 of Vienna Convention on the Diplomatic Relations and optional Protocols, which was enacted on 18 April 1961. Clearly states, “Without prejudice to their (diplomats) privileges and immunities, it is the duty of all persons enjoying such privileges and immunities to respect the laws and regulations of the receiving state .They also have a duty not to interfere in the internal affairs of that state; “how do you see the US ambassador’s attempt to carry out “Chit-Chat with the Ambassador” in Kathmandu?

The momentary diplomatic tiff however raised a few but significant questions in foreign affairs realm.

  • Was that scheduled-act of ambassador a step of interference in Nepal’s internal affairs or was that in violation with the laws of the land? 
  •  Secondaly, was the ambassador’s, attempt to execute Public Diplomacy inconsistent with the Vienna Convention? 
  • In this connection, suppose if you are working with the secretary at Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), Nepal, what strategic steps you suggest him/her to opt for to dispel mistrust between two government?
  • Similarly, what would be your recommendations in the direction to hammer out the differences between US version and Nepal Government’s pre-emptive stance vis-à-vis “Chit-Chat with the Ambassador”? 

Hence, as a diplomat your principal goal is to help dispel mistrust and engorge the scale mutual confidence between two government. Now, in this connection, you are asked to sketch out. convincing point of view along with suggestions, which is in the best interest of Nepal-US relationship, of course in the light of above scenario and case. ‘ 

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